PostgreSQL is a comprehensive and practical database design and management system geared toward administrators who need to organize and control multiple databases, run SQL queries, as well as create new triggers and attributes.
Designed as an enterprise-class database, PostgreSQL boasts powerful features such as the point in time recovery, asynchronous replication, nested transactions, and tablespaces, to name a few. What’s more, the program comes with support for multibyte character encodings and it is locale-aware for sorting all the scripts available in one file.
PostgreSQL is a powerful, open-source object-relational database system. It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness. It runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows. It is a powerful object-relational database management system.
It is fully ACID compliant, has full support for foreign keys, joins, views, triggers, and stored procedures (in multiple languages). It includes most SQL:2008 data types, including INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE, INTERVAL, and TIMESTAMP. It also supports storage of binary large objects, including pictures, sounds, or video. It has native programming interfaces for C/C++, Java, .Net, Perl, Python, Ruby, Tcl, ODBC, among others, and exceptional documentation (table sizes can go up to 32 TB).
PostgreSQL 2019 comes with many features aimed to help developers build applications, administrators to protect data integrity and build fault-tolerant environments, and help you manage your data no matter how big or small the dataset. In addition to being free and open-source, the tool is highly extensible. For example, you can define your own data types, build out custom functions, even write code from different programming languages without recompiling your database!
The app tries to conform with the SQL standard where such conformance does not contradict traditional features or could lead to poor architectural decisions. Many of the features required by the SQL standard are supported, though sometimes with slightly differing syntax or function. Further moves towards conformance can be expected over time. As of the version 11 release in October 2018, Postgre SQL 64 bit version conforms to at least 160 of the 179 mandatory features for SQL:2011 Core conformance, whereas of this writing, no relational database meets full conformance with this standard.
The installation process does not require you to perform any advanced configurations, however, when you add a password (which is mandatory when you need to connect to the default server), you need to memorize it, otherwise, you will not be able to use PostgreSQL.
The application comes with an intuitive and user-friendly interface and with well-organized menus. In the main window, you are able to view the structure of the available databases. You can easily create objects, delete and edit existing ones, manage multiple tables and perform actions such as delete, insert, drop or alter.
The left panel of the application displays a hierarchical tree with all the available servers and the objects they contain, such as tablespaces, schemas, catalogs, and triggers.
The upper right side displays detailed information about the currently selected object available in the tree view. Tabs such as ‘Properties’, ‘Statistics’, ‘Dependencies’ and ‘Dependents’ enable you to get a better overview of the selected object.
The lower right side contains a reverse-engineered SQL script that allows you to copy it to any editor using cut and paste, or simply save it to a new file.
PostgreSQL 12 provides significant performance and maintenance enhancements to its indexing system and to partitioning.
B-tree Indexes, the standard type of indexing in PostgreSQL, have been optimized in PostgreSQL 12 to better handle workloads where the indexes are frequently modified. Using a fair-use implementation of the TPC-C benchmark, This software demonstrated on average a 40% reduction in space utilization and an overall gain in query performance.
Queries on partitioned tables have also seen demonstrable improvements, particularly for tables with thousands of partitions that only need to retrieve data from a limited subset. It also improves the performance of adding data to partitioned tables with INSERT and COPY and includes the ability to attach a new partition to a table without blocking queries.
Why use PostgreSQL Database?
Main reasons for using PostgreSQL are:
- It offers useful features like Table partitioning, Point in Time Recovery, Transactional DDL, etc.
- Ability to utilize 3rd party Key Stores in a full PKI infrastructure
- Developers can modify open-source code as it is licensed under BSD without the need to contribute back enhancements
- Independent Software Vendors can redistribute it without the fear of being “infected” by an open-source license
- Users and Roles can be assigned Object-level privileges
- Supports AES, 3DES and other data encryption algorithms.
PostgreSQL Database Features
- Primitives: Integer, Numeric, String, Boolean
- Structured: Date/Time, Array, Range, UUID
- Document: JSON/JSONB, XML, Key-value (Hstore)
- Geometry: Point, Line, Circle, Polygon
- Customizations: Composite, Custom Types
- UNIQUE, NOT NULL
- Primary Keys
- Foreign Keys
- Exclusion Constraints
- Explicit Locks, Advisory Locks
- Indexing: B-tree, Multicolumn, Expressions, Partial
- Advanced Indexing: GiST, SP-Gist, KNN Gist, GIN, BRIN, Covering indexes, Bloom filters
- Sophisticated query planner/optimizer, index-only scans, multicolumn statistics
- Transactions, Nested Transactions (via savepoints)
- Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC)
- Parallelization of reading queries and building B-tree indexes
- Table partitioning
- All transaction isolation levels defined in the SQL standard, including Serializable
- Just-in-time (JIT) compilation of expressions
Reliability, Disaster Recovery
- Write-ahead Logging (WAL)
- Replication: Asynchronous, Synchronous, Logical
- Point-in-time-recovery (PITR), active standbys
- Authentication: GSSAPI, SSPI, LDAP, SCRAM-SHA-256, Certificate, and more
- Robust access-control system
- Column and row-level security
- Stored functions and procedures
- Procedural Languages: PL/PGSQL, Perl, Python (and many more)
- Foreign data wrappers: connect to other databases or streams with a standard SQL interface
- Many extensions that provide additional functionality, including PostGIS
Internationalization, Text Search
- Support for international character sets, e.g. through ICU collations
- Full-text search
|Processor||1 GHz processor|
|RAM||1 GB RAM|
|Hard Disk Space||512 MB Hard Disk Space|
|Operating System||Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, and Mac OS X|
|Software Name||PostgreSQL 12|
|File Size||186 MB|
|Developer||PostgreSQL Global Development Group|
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