Artificial Intelligence: Today and Tomorrow

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In 2017, the global sensation social robot Sophia has become something of a media celebrity and set a benchmark  – ‘she’ was the first robot to be given legal personhood anywhere in the world and granted citizenship by the world’s most conservative kingdom Saudi Arabia. Bestowed with this great gift, Sophia has embarked on a distinguished career in marketing driven by the highly anticipated artificial intelligence technology.

Well, have you ever thought how the Google Pixel phones or iPhones can capture such great portrait shots? The answer is artificial intelligence. Actually, we are experiencing many things are happening around us ‘automatically and more smartly’ than ever before,  from the obvious AI features such as the self-driving vehicles, spell checker, or the built-in smart assistants like Google Assistant, Alexa, Siri or Bixby. AI is impacting our lives every day.

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You probably already know that some of the applications you use every day are created through artificial intelligence technology, such as Netflix, Spotify, and Siri, among others. Or maybe you’ve heard of drones delivering pizzas or robots that play chess, poker, and other board games better than any human could.

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John McCarthy – The Father of Modern AI

A modern History of AI

1956-60

  • John McCarthy – the father of ‘AI’ coined the term “artificial intelligence” as the topic of the Dartmouth Conference, the first conference devoted to the subject.
  • Demonstration of the first running AI program, the Logic Theorist (LT) written by Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw, and Herbert Simon (Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University). See Over the holidays 50 years ago, two scientists hatched artificial intelligence technology.
  • Arthur Samuel (IBM) wrote the first game-playing program, for checkers, to achieve sufficient skill to challenge a world champion. Samuel’s machine learning programs were responsible for the high performance of the checkers player.
  • Margaret Masterman & colleagues at Cambridge design semantic nets for machine translation. See Themes in the work of Margaret Masterman by Yorick Wilks (1988).

1961-70

  • First industrial robot company, Unimation, founded
  • Thomas Evans’ program, ANALOGY, written as part of his Ph.D. work at MIT, demonstrated that computers can solve the same analogy problems as are given on IQ tests.
  • Ivan Sutherland’s MIT dissertation on Sketchpad introduced the idea of interactive graphics into computing.
  • Edward A. Feigenbaum & Julian Feldman published Computers and Thought, the first collection of articles about artificial intelligence technology.
  • Jaime Carbonell (Sr.) developed SCHOLAR, an interactive program for computer-aided instruction based on semantic nets as the representation of knowledge.
  • Bill Woods described Augmented Transition Networks (ATN’s) as a representation for natural language understanding.
  • Patrick Winston’s Ph.D. program, ARCH, at MIT learned concepts from examples in the world of children’s blocks.

1971-80

  • Terry Winograd’s Ph.D. thesis (MIT) demonstrated the ability of computers to understand English sentences in a restricted world of children’s blocks, in a coupling of his language understanding program, SHRDLU, with a robot arm that carried out instructions typed in English.
  • Prolog developed by Alain Colmerauer.
  • he Assembly Robotics group at Edinburgh University builds Freddy, the Famous Scottish Robot, capable of using vision to locate and assemble models.
  • Mycin program, initially written as Ted Shortliffe’s Ph.D. dissertation at Stanford, was demonstrated to perform at the level of experts. Bill VanMelle’s PhD dissertation at Stanford demonstrated the generality of MYCIN’s representation of knowledge and style of reasoning in his EMYCIN program, the model for many commercial expert system “shells”.
  • Jack Myers and Harry Pople at the University of Pittsburgh developed INTERNIST, a knowledge-based medical diagnosis program based on Dr. Myers’ clinical knowledge.
  • Cordell Green, David Barstow, Elaine Kant, and others at Stanford demonstrated the CHI system for automatic programming.
  • The Stanford Cart, built by Hans Moravec, becomes the first computer-controlled, autonomous vehicle when it successfully traverses a chair-filled room and circumnavigates the Stanford AI Lab.
  • Drew McDermott & Jon Doyle at MIT and John McCarthy at Stanford begin publishing work on non-monotonic logics and formal aspects of truth maintenance.
  • First National Conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) held at Stanford. (1980)

artificial intelligence future top companies

1981-2000

  • The autonomous drawing program, Aaron, created by Harold Cohen, is demonstrated at the AAAI National Conference (based on more than a decade of work, and with subsequent work showing major developments).
  • Dean Pomerleau at CMU creates ALVINN (An Autonomous Land Vehicle in a Neural Network), which grew into the system that drove a car coast-to-coast under computer control for all but about 50 of the 2850 miles. (1989)
  • Major advances in all areas of AI, with significant demonstrations in machine learning, intelligent tutoring, case-based reasoning, multi-agent planning, scheduling, uncertain reasoning, data mining, natural language understanding and translation, vision, virtual reality, games, and other topics.
  • Rod Brooks’ COG Project at MIT, with numerous collaborators, makes significant progress in building a humanoid robot
  • TD-Gammon, a backgammon program written by Gerry Tesauro, demonstrates that reinforcement learning is powerful enough to create a championship-level game-playing program by competing favorably with world-class players.
  • EQP theorem prover at Argonne National Labs proves the Robbins Conjecture in mathematics (October-November, 1996).
  • The Deep Blue chess program beats the current world chess champion, Garry Kasparov, in a widely followed match and rematch (See Deep Blue Wins). (May 11th, 1997).
  • NASA’s Pathfinder mission made a successful landing and the first autonomous robotics system, Sojourner, was deployed on the surface of Mars. (July 4, 1997)
  • First official Robo-Cup soccer match (1997) featuring table-top matches with 40 teams of interacting robots and over 5000 spectators.
  • Web crawlers and other AI-based information extraction programs become essential in the widespread use of the world-wide-web.
  • Demonstration of an Intelligent Room and Emotional Agents at MIT’s AI Lab. Initiation of work on the Oxygen Architecture, which connects mobile and stationary computers in an adaptive network.
  • Sony launches first consumer robot pet dog AiBO (AI robot) with skills and personality
    that develop over time.

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2000-2020

  • Interactive robot pets (a.k.a. “smart toys”) become commercially available, realizing the vision of the 18th cen. novelty toy makers.
  • Cynthia Breazeal at MIT publishes her dissertation on Sociable Machines, describing KISMET, a robot with a face that expresses emotions.
  • Roomba – First mass-produced autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner from iRobot learns to navigate and clean homes
  • Stanford’s autonomous vehicle, Stanley, wins DARPA Grand Challenge race. (October 2005). (See In a Grueling Desert Race, a Winner, but Not a Driver.
  • NASA’s robotic exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity autonomously navigate the surface of Mars.
  • NASA’s robotic exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity autonomously navigate the surface of Mars.
  • The Dartmouth Artificial Intelligence Technology Conference: The Next 50 Years (AI@50) AI@50 (14–16 July 2006)
  • DARPA launches the Urban Challenge for autonomous cars to obey traffic rules and operate in an urban environment.
  • Google builds an autonomous car.
  • Microsoft launched Kinect for Xbox 360, the first gaming device to track human body movement, using just a 3D camera and infra-red detection, enabling users to play their Xbox 360 wirelessly. The award-winning machine learning for human motion capture technology for this device was developed by the Computer Vision group at Microsoft Research, Cambridge.
  • Mary Lou Maher and Doug Fisher organize the First AAAI Workshop on AI and Sustainability. (2011)
  • Apple’s Siri (2011), Google’s Google Now (2012) and Microsoft’s Cortana (2014) are smartphone apps that use natural language to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions.
  • Robot HRP-2 built by SCHAFT Inc of Japan, a subsidiary of Google, defeats 15 teams to win DARPA’s Robotics Challenge Trials. HRP-2 scored 27 out of 32 points in 8 tasks needed in disaster response. Tasks are driving a vehicle, walk over debris, climb a ladder, remove debris, walk through doors, cut through a wall, close valves and connect a hose.
  • Amazon launches Alexa, an intelligent virtual assistant with a voice interface that completes shopping tasks. (2014)
  • Eugene Goostman, a chatbot passes the Turing Test with a third of judges believing Eugene is human.
  • Microsoft’s chatbot Tay goes rogue on social media making inflammatory and offensive racist comments. (2016)
  • An OpenAI-machined learned bot played at The International 2017 Dota 2 tournament in August 2017. It won during a 1v1 demonstration game against professional Dota 2 player Dendi.
  • Alibaba language processing AI outscores top humans at a Stanford University reading and comprehension test, scoring 82.44 against 82.304 on a set of 100,000 questions.
  • Google’s A.I. AlphaGo beats world champion Ke Jie in the complex board game of Go,
    notable for its vast number (2170) of possible positions
  • Announcement of Google Duplex, a service to allow an AI assistant to book appointments over the phone. The LA Times judges the AI’s voice to be a “nearly flawless” imitation of human-sounding speech.

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AI in our everyday life

Tesla cars are always in the center when we talk on how AI is impacting our daily life because Tesla was one of the first automotive brands to launch a self-driving vehicle, and Audi, Cadillac, and Volvo are already developing their own models. In an estimate, there are more than 600,000 Tesla cars running in the US alone and that number is set to increase exponentially now that Tesla has solved its major production problems.

All the Tesla cars are connected and the things that your car learns is shared across all the cars. That means, if you had to take an unanticipated hard-left on a cross-road, all the Tesla cars will know how to maneuver that turn after they are updated. With autonomous cars running on our roads and autonomous drones flying above us, you won’t be able to deny the impact of AI on our lives. See, how we are experiencing AI in our everyday life.

tesla autonomous car run with artificial intelligence

But that’s not all. Uber already made the first 50,000-beer delivery with a self-driving truck.

  • AI-assisted Healthcare: Artificial intelligence technology is proving to be a game-changer in healthcare, improving virtually every aspect of the industry from robot-assisted surgeries to safeguarding private records against cybercriminals. Artificial intelligence is giving the maligned industry a much-needed makeover. AI-enabled virtual assistants are reducing unnecessary hospital visits and giving nurses 20% of their time back in the process; workflow assistants are helping doctors free up 17% of their schedules; pharmaceutical companies are researching life-saving medicines in a fraction of the time and cost it traditionally takes, and AI is even being used to help bring healthcare to underdeveloped nations.
  • Video gaming: The video game industry is probably one of the earliest adopters of AI. The integration started very small with the use of AI to generate random levels that people can play. However, that has increased to a level that goes far beyond what one can even imagine. On the large scale, we just observed OpenAI 5, developed by the company OpenAI which is being backed by Elon Musk, beating pro-level Dota 2 players in one on one matches while also beating amateur Dota 2 teams. This achievement is being hailed as a leapfrogging moment in the AI industry. Dota 2 is a strategy based game where players have to make decisions every second, and beating pro players in such a dynamic game is a huge achievement for AI.
  • Smart home devices: We have already talked about smart voice assistants which we use to control these smart home devices, and as we know, they are the prime example of AI impacting our lives. From getting directions to your lunch spot to inquiring about the weather for your weekend getaway, digital voice assistants are quickly becoming our can’t-live-without co-pilots through life. These tools from Siri and Alexa to Google Home and Cortana, use natural language processing and generators driven by AI to return answers to you.
  • AI-powered smart emails: If you still find your inbox cluttered with too many unwanted messages, chances are pretty high that you are still stuck with an old school email app. Yeah, you heard it right! Modern email apps like Spark make the most of AI to get rid of spam messages and also categorize emails so that you can quickly access the important ones. What’s more, they also offer smart replies based on the messages you receive to help you reply to any email quickly. The “Smart Reply” feature of Gmail is a great example of this. It uses AI to scan the text of the email and provides you with contextual answers. Smart replies are tailored to the content of each email. Users can reply by typing a manual response or may instead choose smart reply like “Thanks!” or “Let’s do it!” with the click of a button.
  • Smart speakers: Not for nothing, many believe that smart speakers are all set for a big boom in technology. Aside from controlling smart home devices, they are also up to the task for several things like sending quick messages, setting reminders, checking the weather, and getting the latest news. And it’s this versatility that’s proving to be a decisive factor for them. Led by the hugely popular Amazon Echo series, the global smart speaker market reached an unprecedented high in 2019 with sales of 149.9 million units, which is a significant increase of 70% in 2018. Moreover, the sales in Q4 2019 also saw a new record with a whopping 55.7 million units. Smart speakers are probably the most overt examples of the use of AI in real life.
  • Travel and maps: When apps like Google Maps calculate traffic and construction in order to find the quickest route to your destination according to the usual traffic, that’s AI at work. By now you must be convinced of the fact that AI is impacting our lives on a daily basis. However, if there are still some skeptics out there let us take a few more examples. How about the navigation and travel industry? Most of us travel from time to time and use the navigation on almost a daily basis. Do you know that whether you are using Google or Apple Maps for navigating, or calling an Uber, or booking a flight ticket, you are using AI? Well, if you didn’t know that before, it’s time that you open your eyes. Both Google and Apple along with other navigation services use artificial intelligence to interpret hundreds of thousands of data points that they receive to give you real-time traffic data. When you are calling an Uber, both the pricing and the car that matches your ride request is decided by AI. As you can see, AI plays a significant role in how we reach from point A to point B.
  • Ridesharing apps: Ride-sharing service Uber uses AI to determine how long it will take to get from your location to your destination. This lets you know when to expect a driver or food delivery. This AI-powered software would attempt to determine a rider’s state by analyzing and comparing patterns of typing, walking speed, and other factors.
  • Commercial flights use an AI Autopilot: You might be surprised to discover how little flying your friendly pilot actually does in the cockpit. A 2015 survey of airline Boeing 777 pilots reported spending only 7 minutes manually flying the plane during a typical flight, with much of the rest being done by AI technology. The New York Times reports that the average flight of a Boeing plane involves only seven minutes of human-steered flight, which is typically reserved only for takeoff and landing.
  • Google predictive search assistant: When you begin typing a search term and Google makes recommendations for you to choose from, that’s AI in action. Predictive searches are based on data that Google collects about you, such as your location, age, and other personal details. Using AI, the search engine attempts to guess what you might be trying to find.
  • Product recommendation on shopping sites: Amazon and other online retailers use AI to gather information about your preferences and buying habits. Then, they personalize your shopping experience by suggesting new products tailored to your habits.
  • Music recommendation: Music services use AI to track your listening habits. Then, they use the information to suggest other songs you might like to hear. For example, Spotify offers suggestions for new discoveries, new releases, and old favorites, based on your listening habits. Google Play also offers personalized music recommendations.
  • Chatbots: Chatbots recognize words and phrases in order to (hopefully) deliver helpful content to customers who have common questions. Sometimes, chatbots are so accurate that it seems as if you’re talking to a real person.
  • Facebook Proactive Detection: In November 2017, Facebook launched a proactive detection feature that scans posts to detect patterns that may indicate if a user may be considering self-harm. When it detects suicidal thinking patterns, the AI-powered program sends mental health resources to the person and, sometimes, also to his friends. Facebook supports this AI program with human resources such as trained moderators, partnerships with local mental health organizations, and local first-responders when appropriate.
  • Fraud prevention alerts: Nowadays, many banks use AI is by sending mobile alerts to help prevent against fraud. Another way that banks use AI is by sending mobile alerts to help prevent against fraud.
  • Mobile banking and finance: AI is used by many banks to personalize your experience on their mobile apps. For example, according to Biz Journals, the Wells Fargo app analyzes account information in order to provide personalized alerts such as bill pay reminders, pre-overdraft alerts, and transfer prompt. Moreover, AI in finance is also being a better solution than a traditional accounting practice. It is more productive and accurate over human efforts and almost error-free.

But that’s nothing compared to what you’re about to read, new uses and applications of artificial intelligence (AI) are developed every day, bringing us closer to an unparalleled future. A future that we could’ve never imagined.

Artificial Intelligence technology future prediction

Breakthrough in Science

AI-scientist-eve-toothpaste-curing-malaria
AI scientist Eve finds toothpaste ingredients may help fight malaria.

The scope of artificial intelligence technology in science is the largest. Recently ‘Eve’ was in the news for discovering that an ingredient found commonly in toothpaste, is capable of curing Malaria. Here the subject in appreciation ‘Eve’ is not a human scientist, rather a Robot created by a team of scientists at the Universities of Manchester, Aberystwyth, and Cambridge.

Eve’s example hints at the possibility of AI playing a bigger role in science in the future, not just merely for augmentation. AI will be able to create science, not merely do science as evidenced by the Robot Scientist, Eve. Automation using AI for drug discovery is a field that is rapidly growing, mainly because machines work faster than humans. AI is also being applied in related areas such as synthetic biology for the manufacture and rapid design of microorganisms for industrial uses. Taking all this in stride, AI is sure to transform science as we know it.

Cyber Security

AI-driven-cybersecurity

The AIdriven security solution is among the fastest-growing fields which bring together researchers from multiple areas such as machine learning, statistics, big data analytics, network, and cryptography to fight against the advanced cybersecurity threats.

The artificial intelligence technology’s future application in cybersecurity will ensure in curbing hackers. The incidence of cybercrime is an issue that has been escalating over the years. It costs enterprises in terms of brand image as well as material cost. Credit card fraud is one of the most prevalent cybercrimes. Despite there being detection techniques, they still prove to be ineffective in curbing hackers. AI can bring a remarkable change to this. Novel AI techniques like Recurrent Neural Networks can detect frauds in the initial stages itself. This fraud detection system will be able to scan thousands of transactions instantly and predict/ classify them into buckets. RNN can save a lot of time as it focuses on cases where there is a high probability of fraud.

Face Recognition

artificial-intelligence-facial-recognition-feature

The launch of iPhone x with face recognition feature was a step towards artificial intelligence technology. In the coming years, iPhone users might be to unlock their phones by looking into the front camera. Authenticating personal content is not the only use of facial recognition. Governments and security forces make use of this feature to track down criminals and identify citizens. In the future, facial recognition can go beyond physical structure to emotional analysis. For example, it might become possible to detect whether a person is stressed or angry.

Data Analysis

advanced-data-analytics

One of the ways AI will benefit business is in the field of Data Analysis. AI would be able to perceive patterns in data that humans cannot. This enables businesses’ to target the right customers for the product. An example of this is the partnership between IBM and Fluid. Fluid, a digital retail company uses Watson – an AI created by IBM for insightful product recommendations to its customers.

Transport and road safety

transport-road-safety

AI-guided transport will no longer be confined to the pages of sci-fi literature. Self- driving cars have already populated the market, however, a driver is required at the wheels for safety purposes. With Google, Uber, and General Motors trying to establish themselves at the top in this market, it will not be long before driverless vehicles become a reality. Machine Learning will be crucial in ensuring that these Automated Vehicles operate smoothly and efficiently.

Well, AI also very important for road safety, currently, an average of 102 people in the United States dies in traffic-related accidents every day. Billions of dollars are being wasted annually on gasoline expended by cars that are stationary in the traffic. Autonomous vehicles have been regarded as the likely solution to address the issues of driver safety, fuel economy, and traffic reduction.

They are also expected to increase the quality of life for the elderly and the visually impaired. Statements promising the commercial release of autonomous vehicles in the near future by certain corporate moguls have been met with derision and contempt.

However, this does not slow down the rate of artificial intelligence technology developments, specifically of specialized algorithms for autonomous driving. The effects that autonomous vehicles will likely have on the driver and pedestrian safety, the global economy, the environment, and the quality of life will be astounding.

Various Jobs

Robotic Process Automation is the application of machine learning to automate rule-based tasks. It will help people to focus on the critical aspects of their job while leaving the routine aspects of machines. Automation can range from data entry to complete process automation. The reach of AI is also expected to blanket jobs that are risky or health-hazardous like bomb diffusion and welding.

AI-powered robots work alongside humans to perform a limited range of tasks like assembly and stacking, and predictive analysis sensors keep equipment running smoothly.

Emotion Bots

emotional-bots

Tech has advanced in terms of Emotional Quotient. Virtual assistants Siri, Cortana & Alexa show how the extent to which AI comprehends human language. They are able to understand the meaning from context and make intelligent judgments. Back in 2015, a companion robot called, ‘Pepper’ went on sale. All the initial 1000 units were sold within a minute. Overall, considering all this, the possibility of emotional bots might become a reality in the future.

Marketing & Advertising

The application of AI in sales and marketing seems definite, considering the fact that marketing professionals leave no stone unturned to benefit their business. AI can increase the efficiency of sales and marketing organizations. The focus will be on improving conversion rates and sales. Personalized advertising, knowledge of customers and their behavior gleaned through facial recognition can generate more revenue.

AI in education

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This technology has already reached a classroom setting. AI and education go hand in hand and the new techniques could be all that is required to ensure that all students attain their ultimate academic success. Education has no limits, and AI can help to eliminate boundaries. Technology brings drastic transitions by facilitating the learning of any course from anywhere across the globe and at any time. AI-powered education equips students with fundamental IT skills. With more inventions, there will be a wider range of courses available online, and with the help of AI, students will be learning from wherever they are.

Smart content is a very hot subject matter today. Robots can produce digital content of similar quality as what different AU essay writing services can create. Textbooks are digitized with the help of AI, early-stage virtual tutors assist human instructors and facial analysis gauges the emotions of students to help determine who’s struggling or bored and better tailor the experience to their individual needs.

Smart content also includes virtual content like video conferencing, video lectures. As you can imagine, textbooks are taking a new turn. AI systems are using traditional syllabuses to create customized textbooks for certain subjects. New learning interfaces are being created to help students of all academic grades and ages. An example of such mechanisms is Cram101 which uses AI to make textbook contents more comprehensible and it is easy to navigate with summaries of the chapters, flashcards, and practical tests.

AI in human resources and recruiting

Artificial Intelligence technology will transform everyday life from the way we currently see it. As an example, machine learning technology could potentially revolutionize Human Resources responsibilities like recruiting, performance evaluation and training to name a few. AI has the ability to streamline the human resources process by relying more on the analytical processing of big data instead of individual observations that usually take up time and resources.

From a recruiting perspective, AI software can design interview questions for potential hires with a focus on the person’s professional competency for a particular job without knowing their race, gender, or ethnicity. This technology could also benefit the resume filtering process, which can be a very time-consuming and tedious process.

Artificial Intelligence enabled languages

An immediate effect that machine learning can have from an international business standpoint is its ability to overcome language barriers. There are over 6,500 spoken languages in the world, and many of the obscure languages are spoken by demographics isolated from the global economy. Removing language barriers through technology connects and brings more communities to the global marketplace.

Conclusion: Artificial intelligence’s future is very much promising and has so much potential across so many different industries. It’s quite difficult to scale on what rate and pace the artificial intelligence technology and machine learning will dominate the market in the near future because every small, medium or large industries are running to decode the AI and it’s best implementations to ease their operations, productivity, quality, and services. It seems the virtual presence of AI is in every corner of human existence. But, one thing is pretty sure, the impact of AI in coming future would be mind-blowing and we may witness many amazing changes in our everyday life!

 

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